Publications

Books

  1. Briand, D., Yeatman, E., Roundy, S.,  (Eds.). (2015). Micro Energy Harvesting (Advanced Micro and Nanosystems) . John Wiley & Sons. ISBN-10: 3527319026  [link]
  2. Roundy, S., Wright PK, Rabaey JM (2003). Energy Scavenging for Wireless Sensor Networks, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston MA. ISBN 1-4020-7663-0 [link]

Book Chapters

  1. Roundy, S., Sundararajan, V., Baker, J., Carleton, E., Reilly, E., Otis, B., Rabaey, J., and Wright P. K., (2006)., “Energy Scavenging in Support of Ambient Intelligence: Techniques, Challenges, and Future Directions”, in AmIware: Hardware Technology Drivers of Ambient Intelligence, eds S. Mukherjee, E. Aarts, R. Roovers, F. Widdershoven, M. Ouwekerk, Springer, New York. ISBN 1402041977 [link]
  2. Roundy, S., Frechette L., (2005). “Energy Scavenging and Non-traditional Power Sources for Wireless Sensor Networks”, in Handbook of Sensor Networks: Algorithms and Architectures, eds I. Stojmenovic, Wiley Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-68472-5 [link]
  3. Roundy, S., Strasser, M., Wright P.K., (2005). “Powering Ambient Intelligent Networks”, in Ambient Intelligence, eds W. Weber, J. Rabaey, and E. Aarts, Springer, New York. ISBN 3540238670 [link]

Journal Articles

  1. Rantz, R., Roundy, S. (2020) Dynamics of Wrist-Worn Eccentric-Rotor Energy Harvesters, Physical Review Applied 14.1 (2020): 014058. [pdf]
  2. Truong, B. D., & Roundy, S. (2020). Experimentally validated model and power optimization of a magnetoelectric wireless power transfer system in free-free configuration. Smart Materials and Structures. [pdf]
  3. Yu, Y., Nguyen, T., Tathireddy, P., Roundy, S., Young, D.J. (2019) An in-vitro Study of Wireless Inductive Sensing and Robust Packaging for Future Implantable Hydrogel-based Glucose Monitoring Applications, IEEE Sensors Journal (2019), [link]
  4. Meng, M., Wang, D., Truong, B.D., Trolier-McKinstry, S. Roundy, S., Kiani, M. (2019) A Multi-Beam Shared-Inductor Reconfigurable Voltage/SECE-Mode Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Interface Circuit, IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems. [link]
  5. Truong, B. D., Williams, S., & Roundy, S. (2019). Experimentally validated model and analytical investigations on power optimization for piezoelectric-based wireless power transfer systems. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 30 (16), 2464-2477. [pdf]
  6. Basaeri, H., Yu, Y., Young, D. J., & Roundy, S. (2019). Acoustic power transfer for biomedical implants using piezoelectric receivers: effects of misalignment and misorientation. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. [pdf]
  7. Basaeri, H., Yu, Y., Young, D., & Roundy, S. (2019). A MEMS-Scale Ultrasonic Power Receiver for Biomedical Implants. IEEE Sensors Letters3(4), 1-4. [pdf]
  8. Rupp, T., Truong, B. D., Williams, S., & Roundy, S. (2019). Magnetoelectric Transducer Designs for Use as Wireless Power Receivers in Wearable and Implantable Applications. Materials12(3), 512. [pdf]
  9. Truong, B. D., Roundy, C., Andersen, E., Roundy, S. (2018). Analysis of resonance and anti-resonance frequencies in a wireless power transfer system: analytical model and experiments. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs. [pdf]
  10. Truong, B. D., Roundy, S. (2018). Wireless power transfer system with center-clamped magneto-mechano-electric (MME) receiver: model validation and efficiency investigation. Smart Materials and Structures28(1), 015004.[pdf]
  11. Xue, T., Williams, S., Rantz, R., Halim, M. A., & Roundy, S. (2018). System Modeling, Characterization, and Design Considerations for Generators in Commercial Watches With Application to Energy Harvesting for Wearables. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics23(5), 2515-2524. [pdf]
  12. Yeo, H.G., Xue, T., Roundy, S., Ma, X., Rahn, C., Trolier-McKinstry, S., (2018). Strongly (001) Oriented Bimorph PZT Film on Metal Foils Grown by rf-Sputtering for Wrist-Worn Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters, Advanced Functional Materials, 1801327. [link]
  13. Xue, T., Yeo, H. G., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Roundy, S., (2018). Wearable inertial energy harvester with sputtered bimorph lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film beams, Smart Materials and Structures, 27, 085026. [pdf]
  14. Halim, M.A. Rantz, R. Zhang, Q. Gu, L., Yang, K., Roundy, S. (2018). An electromagnetic rotational energy harvester using sprung eccentric rotor, driven by pseudo-walking motion, Applied Energy, vol., 1. 2018, pp 66–74 [pdf]
  15. Christensen, D. B., Roundy, S., (2018). Non-Dimensional Analysis of Depth, Orientation, and Alignment in Acoustic Power Transfer Systems, Smart Materials and Structures 27.12 (2018): 125013. [pdf]
  16. Rantz, R., Halim, M.A., Xue, T., Zhang, Q., Gu, L., Roundy, S. (2018). Architectures for wrist-worn energy harvesting, Smart Materials and Structures 27.4 (2018): 044001. [pdf] [corrigendum]
  17. Roundy, S., Trolier-McKinstry, S. (2018). Materials and approaches for on-body energy harvesting, MRS Bulletin 3.3 (2018): 206-213. [link]
  18. Eilertsen, M., Merryweather, A., & Roundy, S. (2018). Characterization of load reduction while lifting drywall using an unpowered drywall lifting device. Work, (Preprint), 1-11. [pdf]
  19. Christensen, D. B., Basaeri, H., Roundy, S. (2017). A computationally efficient technique to model depth, orientation and alignment via ray tracing in acoustic power transfer systems, Smart Materials and Structures, 26.12. 2017: 125020 [pdf]
  20. Rantz, R., Roundy, S., (2017). Characterization of Real-world Vibration Sources and Application to Nonlinear Vibration Energy Harvesters. Energy Harvesting and Systems 4.2 (2017): 67-76. [pdf]
  21. Xue, T., Roundy, S. (2017). On magnetic plucking configurations for frequency up-converting mechanical energy harvesters. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 253 (2017): 101-111. [pdf]
  22. Basaeri, H., Christensen, D., Roundy, S., (2016). A Review of Acoustic Power Transfer for Bio-Medical Implants, Smart Materials and Structures. 25.12 (2016): 123001. [pdf]
  23. Christensen, D., Roundy, S., (2016). Ultrasonically powered piezoelectric generators for bio-implantable sensors: Plate versus diaphragm. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 27.8 (2016): 1092-1105. [pdf]
  24. Heit, J.D., Roundy, S., (2015). A Framework to Determine the Upper Bound on Extractable Power as a Function of Input Vibration Parameters, Energy Harvesting and Systems 3.1 (2016): 69-78. [pdf]
  25. Roundy, S., Tola, J., (2014). An energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics. Smart Materials and Structures, 23 (2014) 105004  [pdf]
  26. Roundy, S., Takahashi, E., (2013). A Planar Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Transducer Using a Multi-pole Magnetic Plate. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical (195) June 2013, pp. 98–104. [pdf]
  27. Steingart, D., Roundy, S., Wright, P.K., Evans, J.W., (2008). Micropower Materials Development for Wireless Sensor Networks, Materials Research Society (MRS) Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 4, 2008, pp. 408-409. [pdf]
  28. Bryzek, J., Roundy, S., Bircumshaw, B., Chung, C., Castelino, K., Stetter, J.R., Vestel, M. (2006). Marvelous MEMS, Circuits and Devices Magazine, vol. 22 (2) 2006, pp. 8-28. [link]
  29. Roundy, S. (2005). On the Effectiveness of Vibration Based Energy Scavenging, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, vol.16, Oct. 2005, pp 809 – 823. [pdf]
  30. Roundy, S., Leland E.S., Baker J., Carleton E., Reilly E., Lai E., Otis B., Rabaey J.M., and Wright P.K. (2005). Improving Power Output for Vibration-Based Energy Scavengers, IEEE Pervasive Computing, Jan. – Mar. 2005, pp. 28-36. [pdf]
  31. Roundy, S.,and Wright, P. K., (2004). A Piezoelectric Vibration based Generator for Wireless Electronics, Smart Materials and Structures, Volume 13, 2004, pp. 1131-1142. [pdf]
  32. Roundy, S., Steingart, D., Frechette, L., Wright, P.K., and Rabaey, J., (2004). Power Sources for Wireless Sensor Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, GmbH, ISSN: 0302-9743, Volume 2920, 2004, pp. 1 – 17. [pdf]
  33. Roundy, S., Wright, P. K., and Rabaey, J., (2003). A Study of Low Level Vibrations as a Power Source for Wireless Sensor Nodes, Computer Communications, vol. 26, no. 11, pp 1131 – 1144. [pdf]
  34. Ahn, S. H., Montero, M., Odell, D., Roundy, S., and Wright, P. K., (2002). Anisotropic Material Properties of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) ABS, Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 8, (no. 4), pp. 248-257. [pdf]
  35. Dornfeld, D., Wright, P. K., Roundy, S., Rangarajan, A., and Ahn, S. H., (2001). Agent Interaction in CAD/CAM, Transactions of NAMRI/SME, Vol. XXIX, pp. 569-575. [pdf]
  36. Rabaey, J.M., Ammer, M. J., da Silva, J. L., Patel, D., Roundy, S., (2000). PicoRadio Supports Ad Hoc Ultra Low-Power Wireless Networking, Computer, vol.33, (no.7), IEEE Comput. Soc. p.42-8. [pdf]

Conference Papers

  1. Truong, B. D., Roundy, C., Rantz, R., Roundy, S. (2019). Energy harvesting and wireless power transfer in a unified system for wearable devices. In 2019 19th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS) (pp. 1-5). IEEE. [pdf]
  2. Andersen, E., Truong, B. D., Roundy, S. (2019). Optimal Coil Design for Wireless Powering of Biomedical Implants Considering Safety Constraints. In 2019 IEEE Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC) (pp. 106-110). IEEE. [pdf]
  3. Truong, B. D., Roundy, S. (2019). Approaching the power limit of an electrodynamic WPTS with nearly coupling-independent operation. In 2019 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power Transfer (WoW) (pp. 121-124). IEEE. [pdf]
  4. Andersen, E., Truong, B.D., Roundy, S., (2019) Wirelessly Powering Biomedical Implants through Magnetoelectric Transducers, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE), Salt Lake City, Nov. 8-14, 2019. [poster-pdf]
  5. Truong, B.D., Wang, D., Xue, T., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Roundy, S., (2019) Experiments on a wireless power transfer system for wearable device with sol-gel thin-film PZT Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1407 (1), 012063 [pdf]
  6. Misra, V., Bozkurt, A., Calhoun, B.H., Datta, S., Dickey, M., Kiani, M., Lach, J., Lee, B., Jur, J., Oralkan, O., Ozturk, M. Rajagopalan, R., Roundy, S., Strohmaier, J., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Vashaee, D., Wentzloff, D., Werner D. (2019)  Optimizing the energy balance to achieve autonomous self-powering for vigilant health and IoT applications, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1407 (1), 012001 [pdf]
  7. Halim, M.A., Xue, T., Rants, T., Zhang, Q., Gu, L., Yang, K., Roundy, S., (2019) Fabrication and characterization of a wrist-driven rotational energy harvester using multiple plucked piezoelectric unimorphs, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1407 (1), 012003 [pdf]
  8. Meng, M., Ibrahim, A., Xue, T., Yeo, H. G., Wang, D., Roundy, S., Trolier-McKinstry, S., & Kiani, M. (2019, February). Multi-Beam Shared-Inductor Reconfigurable Voltage/SECE-Mode Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting of Multi-Axial Human Motion. In 2019 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-(ISSCC) (pp. 426-428). IEEE [link]
  9. Roundy, S., Rantz, R., Xue, T., & Halim, M. A. (2018, October). Inertial Energy Harvesting for Wearables. In 2018 IEEE SENSORS (pp. 1-4). IEEE. [pdf]
  10. Halim, Miah A., et al. (2018) Modeling and Experimental Analysis of a Wearable Energy Harvester that Exploits Human-Body Motion. 2018 IEEE SENSORS. IEEE, 2018. [pdf]
  11. Plaizier, G. M., Andersen, E., Truong, B., He, X., Roundy, S., & Leang, K. K. (2018). Design, Modeling, and Analysis of Inductive Resonant Coupling Wireless Power Transfer for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) (pp. 1-6). IEEE. [link]
  12. Truong, B. D., Le, C. P., Halvorsen, E., Roundy, S., (2018). Power-electronic-interface topology for MEMS energy harvesting with multiple transducers, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 1052. No. 1. IOP Publishing, 2018. [pdf]
  13. Xue T., Yeo H. G, Trolier-McKinstry S., and Roundy S., (2017). A wrist-worn rotational energy harvester utilizing magnetically plucked {001} oriented bimorph PZT thin-film beams, 2017 19th Int. Conf. Solid-State Sensors, Actuators Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS), pp. 375–378, 2017. [pdf]
  14. Miah,A.H., Rantz R., Zhang Q., Gu L., Yang K., and Roundy S., (2017). Electromagnetic energy harvesting from swing-arm motion using rotational eccentric mass structure, in 2017 19th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS), 2017, pp. 1863–1866. [pdf]
  15. Basaeri, H., Roundy, S. (2017). A Micromachined Ultrasonic Power Receiver for Biomedical Implants. SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring (1016416). April 2017, Portland OR. [pdf]
  16. Rantz, R., Xue, T., Zhang, Q., Gu, L., Yang, K., Roundy, S. (2016). Comparative Analysis of Wrist-worn Energy Harvesting Architectures, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 773. No. 1. IOP Publishing, 2016. [pdf]
  17. Yu, Y., Nguyen, T., Tathireddy, P., Roundy, S., and Young, D.J. (2016). Wireless Hydrogel-Based Glucose Sensor For Future Implantable Applications, IEEE Sensors, Oct. 30 – Nov. 2, 2016, Orlando, FL. [Invited] [pdf]
  18. Zhang, Q., Gu, L., Yang, K., Miah, A.H., Rantz, R., and Roundy, S. (2016). Kinetic Energy Harvesting Using Improved Eccentric Rotor Architectue for Wearable Sensors, IEEE Sensors, Oct. 30 – Nov. 2, 2016, Orlando, FL. [pdf]
  19. Basaeri, H., Christensen, D., and Roundy, S. (2016). Ultrasonically Powered Hydrogel-Based Wireless Implantable Glucose Sensor, IEEE Sensors, Oct. 30 – Nov. 2, 2016, Orlando, FL. [pdf]
  20. Rantz, R., and Roundy, S. (2016). Characterization of Real-World Vibration Sources with a View Toward Optimal Energy Harvesting Architectures, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+ Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, pp. 98010P-98010P. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016. [pdf]
  21. Xue, T., Kakkar, S. Lin, Q., and Roundy, S. (2016). Characterization of Micro-Generators Embedded in Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Watches for Wearable Energy Harvesting, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+ Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, pp. 98010O-98010O. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016. [pdf]
  22. Xue, T., and Roundy, S. (2015). Analysis of Magnetic Plucking Configurations for Frequency Up-Converting Harvesters, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 660. N. 1. IOP Publishing, 2015. [pdf]
  23. Christensen, D., and Roundy, S. (2015). Non-Dimensional Modeling of Depth, Alignment, and Orientation in Ultrasonic Power Transfer Systems, Proceedings of the ASME 2015 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems SMASIS 2015, September 21-23, 2015, Colorado Springs, Colorado.
  24. Yu, Y., Bhola, V., Tathireddy, S., Roundy, S., Young, D. (2015). Inductive Sensing Technique For Low Power Implantable Hydrogel-Based Biochemical Sensors. SENSORS, 2015 IEEE. IEEE, 2015. [pdf]
  25. Heit, J., and S. Roundy. (2014). A Framework for Determining the Maximum Theoretical Power Output for a Given Vibration Energy, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 557. No. 1. IOP Publishing, 2014. [pdf]
  26. Xue, T., Ma, X., Rahn, C.,  and Roundy, S. (2014). Analysis of Upper Bound Power Output for a Wrist-Worn Rotational Energy Harvester from Real-World Measured Inputs, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 557. No. 1. IOP Publishing, 2014. [pdf]
  27. Heit, J.,  and Roundy, S., (2014). A Framework to Find the Upper Bound on Power Output as a Function of Input Vibration Parameters, Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems SMASIS 2014, September 8-10, 2014, Newport, Rhode Island. [pdf]
  28. Christensen, D., Roundy, S., (2013). Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures, Technical Digest PowerMEMS 2013 (London, UK, 4-6 December 2013) pp. 638-687. [pdf]
  29. Heit, J., Christensen, D., Roundy, S., (2013). A Vibration Energy Harvesting Structure, Tunable Over a Wide Frequency Range Using Minimal Actuation. Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems. SMASIS 2013 (September 16-18, 2013, Snowbird, Utah, USA) [pdf]
  30. Roundy, S., Tola, J., (2013). An Energy Harvester for Rotating Environments using offset pendulum dynamics, Transducers 2013 / Eurosensors XXVII (Barcelona, Spain 16-20 June 2013) . [pdf]
  31. Roundy, S., Takahashi, E., (2012).  A Cost-effective Planar Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Transducer, Technical Digest PowerMEMS 2012 (Atlanta, GA USA 2-5 December 2012) pp. 10-13 [pdf]
  32. Roundy, S., (2008).  Energy Harvesting For Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems: Design Considerations, Technical Digest PowerMEMS 2008 (Sendai, Japan, 9-12 November 2008) pp.  2-8. [pdf]
  33. Bryzek, J., Roundy, S., Bircumshaw, B., Chung, C., Castelino, K., Stetter, J., Vestel, M, (2005). Advanced IC Sensors and Microstructures for High Volume Applications, Presented at CEATEC 2005, Tokyo Japan Oct. 4 – 8, 2005.
  34. Baker, J., Roundy, S., and Wright, P. K., (2005). Alternative Geometries for Increasing Energy Density in Vibration Energy Scavenging for Wireless Sensor Networks, The Third International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics , San Francisco, California, 15 th – 18 th August 2005. [pdf]
  35. Roundy, S., (2005). Toward Self-Tuning Adaptive Vibration Based Micro-Generators, 2005. Proceedings of the SPIE International Symposium on Smart Materials, Nano- and Micro-Smart Systems, Vo. 5649 (373), 2005,  pp. 373–384. [pdf]
  36. Roundy, S., Sundararajan. V., Baker, J., Carleton E., Reilly E., Otis, B., Rabaey, J., Wright, P., (2004). Energy Scavenging in Support of Ambient Intelligence: Techniques, Challenges, and Future Directions, Philips Symposium on Hardware Technology Drivers of Ambient Intelligence (AmI), Dec. 9 – 10, 2004, Veldhoven, The Netherlands.
  37. Reilly, E.K., Carleton, E., Roundy, S., Wright, P.K., (2004). Vibrational Energy Scavenging via Thin Film Piezoelectric Ceramics, 2004 TMS Annual Meeting, March 14-18, 2004, Charlotte NC. [pdf]
  38. Roundy, S., Steingart, D., Frechette, L., Wright P., Rabaey, J. (2004). Power Sources for Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN), 2004, Berlin, Germany.
  39. Roundy, S., Otis, B., Chee, Y-H., Rabaey, J., Wright, P.K., (2003). A 1.9 GHz Transmit Beacon using Environmentally Scavenged Energy,  ISLPED 2003, August 25-27, 2003, Seoul Korea.  [Winner of Best Paper Award] [pdf]
  40. Roundy, S., Wright, P. K., and Pister, K. S. J., (2002). Micro-Electrostatic Vibration-to-Electricity Converters, ASME IMECE, Nov. 17-22, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana. [pdf]
  41. Montero, M., Odell, D., Roundy, S., Ahn, S. H., and Wright, P. K., (2001). Material Characterization of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Process, Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Conference, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, May 15-17, 2001 Cincinnati, OH. [pdf]
  42. Ahn, S. H., Roundy, S., Wright, P. K., and Liou, S. H., (1999). ‘Design Consultant’ Network-Based Concurrent Design Environment, ASME IMECE, Nov. 14-19, 1999, Nashville, Tennessee, pp. 563-569. [pdf]

Patents

  1. Takahishi, E., Roundy, S.J., EcoHarvester Inc. (2015) Multipolar Electromagnetic Generator, US Pat. 9048717.
  2. Takahashi, E., Roundy, S.J., Tola, J., Bircumshaw, B.L., Carl, S., EcoHarvester Inc. (2014), Wireless Switch with Multipolar Electromagnetic Generator, US Pat. 8665042.
  3. Takahashi, E., Roundy, S.J., Tola, J., Bircumshaw, B.L., Carl, S., EcoHarvester Inc. (2012), Wireless Switch with Multipolar Electromagnetic Generator, US Pat. 8324998
  4. Roundy, S., Bryzek, J., Ray, C., Malaga, M., Brown, D.L., LV Sensors Inc. (2007) Power Generation Utilizing Tire Pressure Changes, US Pat. 7,260,984
  5. Roundy, S., Tola, J., LV Sensors Inc. (2008) Inertial Energy Scavenger, US Patent Pub. No. 2008/0129153

Theses

  1. Eilertsen, M.A., 2016 “Unpowered Drywall Lifting Device: Characterization of Load Reduction while Lifting Drywall in the Construction Environment.” M.S. Thesis, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. May 2016. [pdf]
  2. Heit, J.D., 2014 “A Framework to Estimate Power Output as a Function of Input Vibration Parameters for Vibration Energy Harvesting.” M.S. Thesis, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.  August 2014. [pdf]
  3. Roundy, S.J., 2003, “Energy Scavenging for Wireless Sensor Nodes with a Focus on Vibration to Electricity Conversion,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley CA, May 2003. [pdf]
  4. Roundy, S. J., 2000, “Design Consultant:  A Framework for Integrating Distributed CAD/CAM Tools into a Unified Design and Manufacturing System.”  M.S. Thesis, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley CA, May 2000.